A walnut is a nut of tree Juglans regia (Juglandaceae). Walnuts seeds, called as walnut kernels, are brain-shaped having crinkles on its two bumpy lobed butterfly shape. Seeds is enclosed in the harder shells. It is an edible seed and consumed as a part of human diet for thousands of years. They are rounded, wrinkled and stone-like.After the complete ripening of the seed, the shell is removed and the kernel or meat of the seed is consumed. The kernel is usually divided into two halves which are separated by a partition. Walnut trees secrete chemicals into the soil which prevent the growth of other garden plants and vegetable.
Varieties of Walnuts
There are two common species of walnuts i.e. the Persian walnut (Juglans regia) and Black walnut (Juglans nigra). The most commonly used walnut is Persian walnut which is also known as English walnut and is native to Iran while the black walnut is native to North America and is of high flavor but due to its hard hulling, it is not grown commercially for nut production. Numerous cultivars have been produced commercially, which are all hybrids of English walnut. In 2017, world walnut production was about 3.8 million tons and their major producers were China, USA, Iran and Turkey.
Storage of Walnuts
- Walnuts must be processed and stored properly.
- If the storage is poor, the walnuts are susceptible to the insect and fungal infestations.
- Infested walnuts are discarded as soon as possible.
- The ideal temperature for its storage is -3 to 0°C with low humidity for home and industrial storage.
- However, in developing countries refrigerators are unavailable in large quantities so they are stored below 25 °C of temperature with low humidity.
Constituents of Walnut kernels
Walnut kernels contains about 15% protein, 14% carbohydrates, 65% fats, 7 % dietary fiber and 4% water. Walnut kernels of 100 grams provide 654 kcal energy and several dietary minerals. They are the excellent source of copper (Cu), phosphorus (P), manganese (Mn), vitamin E, vitamin B₆ and folic acid. Its oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid.
Consumption and Benefits of Walnuts
- Walnut kernels are available in two forms in market i.e. in their shell form or de-shelled form.
- They can be eaten as raw, toasted or pickled.
- They are the important ingredient of many dishes like walnut pie, coffee cakes, soups, pastas, breakfast cereals, banana puddings and cookies etc.
- They are also used in ice-creams and as garnish on some foods.
- They are used as a part of low cholesterol diet and reduce the risk of coronary heart diseases.
- They contain omega-3 fats and antioxidants that improves the brain health.
- A regular consumption of walnuts for 8 weeks will enhance the memory, reasoning and mood particularly patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
- They have anti-cancer properties due to the presence of some bio active components like phytosterols, omega-3, gamma-tocopherol and ellagic acids.
- They may suppress the growth of cancers cells in colon, breast, kidney and prostate.
- They produce oil which is commercially available in markets and used for salad dressings and frying purpose as it has a low smoke point.
Commercial Uses of Walnuts
- Walnuts are used in herbal remedies and folk medicine practices since a long time.
- Their husks are used as a durable inks for writing and drawing.
- The husk pigment are also used as a brown dye for fabrics and hair dyeing.
- Walnut kernels are used in cakes and ice creams etc to add extra flavor and nutritional value.
Walnut Kernels (Shelled) Specification:
Light & Amber Halves & Quarters
10Kg Polythene Bags
Inner packing: Polythene bag
20 kg Carton or 50 Kg Gunny Bags
All Year Around
Walnuts ( InShells)
All year round
100 Metric Tonnes Each